Вариант 5. Прочитайте и переведите текст (устно) Stabilization policy Stabilization policy, or demand management
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Контрольная работа №1
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст (устно).
Stabilization policy, or demand management, is the control of the level of aggregate demand in economy using fiscal policy in order to eliminate fluctuation at the national level. The general aim of stabilization policy is to regulate aggregate demand so as to make it as big as the gross national product in order to maintain the existing level of output and employment. It is also essential to keep aggregate demand low enough to avoid inflation.
An unregulated economy will tend to go through periods of depression and boom. Governments try to avoid such fluctuations by stimulating aggregate demand when the economy is depressed and reducing aggregate demand when the economy is overheating. Ideally, aggregate demand should be managed in such a way so as to grow as much as the GNP.
There exist two main problems: (a) correct timing of a government injection or withdrawal; (b) correct magnitude of an injection into or withdrawal from the economy to eliminate depressions and booms.
If the government can get the timing and magnitude correct, it will be able to eliminate the effects of depression. For the government to be able to reduce the intensity of the depression to follow, it is necessary to forecast accurately its beginning, perhaps while the economy is still growing actively.
Much government action is inaccurate in timing and magnitude. Where the government has not been successful in avoiding strong fluctuations in business activity, it can make injections into a growing economy, which then overheats, and withdraw too much at the wrong time, braking too hard.
2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа на вопросы к тексту.
1. What is stabilization policy? (b)
a) non-market economic activity
b) the control of the level of total demand in economy using fiscal policy
c) an amount of money freely circulating in economy
2. Which fluctuation periods will an unregulated economy tend to go through? (b)
a) of inflation and devaluation
b) of depression and boom
c) of injection and withdrawal
3. What actions the government have to take to reduce the intensity of the depression to follow? (c)
a) to keep aggregate demand low enough
b) to satisfy cash demand
c) to forecast accurately the beginning of recession
3. Закончите предложения по содержанию прочитанного текста.
4. The general aim stabilization policy
a) to regulate aggregate demand
b) to make injections into a growing economy