Вариант 3. Шифр 54. Who controls a market economy?

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Вариант 3

1. Прочитайте и переведите письменно текст.

THE MARKET ECONOMY

Have you ever walked through a busy street market? People push their way through crowds of others in order to reach the stalls first. The air is full of deafening shouts. Stall owners yell to advertise their goods. Buyers cry out their orders. It's hard to imagine, but behind this noisy confusion is a very logical economic theory: the market economy.

The market economy is sometimes called the free market. A free market is not controlled in any way by a government. It is also free from the influence of custom or tradition. In a free market, the only reason why things are bought and sold is because there is a demand for them. Prices for goods and services are simply what people are prepared to pay. The market economy is not really controlled by anyone. It controls itself.

The street market where we began has many of the characteristics of the free market. Customers arrive at the market with a shopping list of things they need. They also come with an idea of how much they are prepared to pay. Stall owners sell what customers demand, and try to get the highest price they can for it. Supply and demand control what is on the market and how much it sells for. In the wider economy, we are all customers, and the stall owners are like companies.

The role of the company in the free market is to supply what people want. However, companies need an incentive. The incentive is prof-it. There are two ways for companies to make a profit. The first way is to raise their prices. The second way is to reduce their production costs. And this brings us to two more features of the market economy: competition and technology.

Competition exists in a free market because, theoretically, anyone can be a producer. This means that companies have to compete with each other for a share of the market. Competition is good for consumers because it helps to control prices and quality. If customers aren't happy with a product or service, or if they can't afford it, they will go to a competitor.

Technology exists in a free market because producers need ways to reduce their costs. They cannot buy cheaper raw materials. Instead, they must make better use of time and labour. Technology is the use of tools and machines to do jobs in a better way. This helps companies produce more goods in less time and with less effort. The result: more profit.

People often think that most economies are free markets. However, at the macroeconomic level, a truly free market economy does not exist anywhere in the world. This is because all governments set limits in order to control the economy. Some governments set many limits, other governments set very few, but they all set some. For this reason, a true market economy is only theoretical. Nevertheless, many of the features of the market economy do exist in most societies today. РЫНОЧНАЯ ЭКОНОМИКА

Технология важна для рынка, потому что производителям необходимы способы уменьшения затрат. Если нет возможности купить более дешевое сырье, то можно улучшить показатели использования времени и труда. Технология – это использование инструментов и машин, чтобы сделать эффективным рабочий процесс. Технологии позволяют компаниям произвести больше товаров с меньшим усилием за короткое время. Результат: больше прибыли.

Люди часто думают, что большинство экономических систем – это рыночные экономики. Однако на макроэкономическом уровне, рыночная экономика в чистом виде нигде в мире не представлена. Это вызвано тем, что многие правительства устанавливают определённые рамки для управления экономикой. Некоторые правительства устанавливают много ограничений, другие - немного, но, так или иначе, все вводят ограничения. Поэтому чистая рыночная экономика существует лишь в теории. Тем не менее, многие черты рыночной экономики действительно существуют сегодня в большинстве обществ.

2. Ответьте письменно на вопросы по тексту.

a) Who controls a market economy?

The market economy is not really controlled by anyone. It controls itself. However, governments set limits in order to control the economy.

b) Who decides what to produce and sell in a market economy?

3. Заполните пропуски в предложениях одним из слов, предложенных ниже. Перепишите полные предложения и переведите их на русский язык.

market reduce competition demand advertise features costs raise afford profit

a) Production costs are the amount of money companies spend to make a product.

Себестоимость производства - сумма денежных средств, затраченных компанией, чтобы выпустить товар.

Задание 4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функции инфинитива.

a) One of the fundamental decisions to be taken by entrepreneurs concerns the geographical location of their enterprises.

Одно из фундаментальных решений, учитываемых предпринимателями, касается географического положения их комапний.

Задание 5. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на формы и функции герундия.

a) His taking part in the development of the new system was a great help to us.

Его участие в развитии новой системы было большой помощью для нас.

b) Opening up economies bring a problem of keeping a good balance of trade.

Открытые экономические системы создают проблему сохранения торгового баланса.

Задание 6. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на формы и функции причастия.

a) Monetary policy is one of the tools used by the government to control the economy.

Монетарная политика - один из инструментов, используемых правительством, для контроля экономики.

7. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на типы условных предложений.

a) If money incomes rise by 5 per cent, but over the same period prices rise by 10 per cent, real income will have fallen.

Если доходы увеличатся на 5 процентов, но в это же время цены вырастут на на 10 процентов, реальный доход упадет.

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