Вариант 4. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения

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ВАРИАНТ 4

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

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II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод условных предложений.

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IV. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 4-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1,2 и3 абзацы.

HISTORY OF CONSUMER COOPERATIVES IN GREAT BRITAIN

1. Since the beginning of the 19th century there had been a number of local cooperative societies in Britain. Some of them were set up to break a monopoly of millers and to provide cheap flour for their members. Others started shops in opposition to the shops run by the factory owners whose profits were increased by the high prices they charged.

2. The new model in cooperative development is considered to have been the Rochdale Pioneers’ Society established in 1844. Its aim was to run a shop in a business-like way selling mainly foodstuffs at current prices and distributing the profits as dividends based on the amount of purchases made by the member. This was the basis of the great development of cooperative societies all over Britain. The movement is known to have been strengthened by the establishment of the Cooperative Wholesale Society in 1863 first of all for mass buying and distributing goods to retail societies. In 1869 the first Cooperative Congress was held, the movement having become a really national one.

3. The majority of workers saw the improvement in their living conditions in a general fall of prices. This was achieved by the growth of cooperative movement. It was a passive method of getting progress but an attractive one for those who could see little hope of improvement of living conditions by other means. It attracted attention of thousands of workers to lower prices. We know this tendency to have strengthened the growth of cooperative movement.

4. During the First World War the cooperatives were imposed upon a tax by the government though they were non-profit –making societies. They felt the need for political action to defend their legal rights. And it was in 1917 that Cooperative Party was established.

V. Ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:

VI. Перепишите и письменно переведите деловое письмо.