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Текст 1:


We all know that the normal human daily cycle of activity is of some 7-8 hours' sleep alternating with some 16—17 hours' wakefulness and that, broadly speaking, the sleep normally coincides (совпадать) with the hours of darkness. Our present concern is with how easily and to what extent (до какой степени) this cycle can be modified.

The question is no more academic one. The ease for example, with which people can change from working in the day to working at night is a question of growing importance where automation calls insistently for round-the-clock working of machines. It normally takes from five days to one week for a person to adapt to a reversed routine of sleep and wakefulness, sleeping during the day and working at night. Unfortunately, it is often the case in industry that shifts are changed every week; a person may work from 12 midnight to 8 a.m. one week, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. the next, and 4 p.m. to 12 midnight the third and so on. This means that no sooner has he got used to one routine [ru'ti:n] than he has to change to another, so that much of this time is spent neither working nor sleeping very efficiently.

One answer would seem to be longer periods on each shift a month, or even three months. Recent research by Bonjer (1960) of the Netherlands ['nedabndz], however, has shown that people on such systems will revert to their normal habits of sleep and wakefulness during the week-end and that this is quite enough to destroy any adaptation to night work built up during the week.

The only real solution appears to be to hand over the night shift to a corps of permanent night workers whose nocturnal ([пэкЧэ:п1] ночной) wakefulness may persist through all week-ends and holidays. An interesting study of the domestic life and health of night-shift workers

was carried out by Brown in 1957. She found a high incidence (число) of disturbed sleep, digestive disorder and domestic disruption among those on alternating day and night shifts, but no abnormal occurrence of these symptoms among those on permanent night work.